5 PILLARS IN ISLAM
5 Pillars in Islam
Shahada is the declaration of faith, i.e. the professing that there is only one God (Allah) (monotheism) and that Muhammad is God’s messenger. Kalima is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: ‘La ‘ilaa-ha ‘il-lal-laa-hu mu-ham-ma-dur ra-soo-lul-laah “I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except God and Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger.” Reciting this statement is obligatory in daily prayer (salāh) as well as on other occasions; it is also a key part in a person’s conversion to Islam.
Afghan politicians and foreign diplomats praying (making salat) at the U.S. Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Salat (ṣalāh) is the Islamic prayer. Salat consists of five daily prayers according to the Sunna; the names are according to the prayer times: Fajr (dawn), Dhuhr (noon), Asr (afternoon), Maghrib (evening), and Isha’ (night). The Fajr prayer is performed before sunrise, Dhuhr is performed in the midday after the sun has surpassed its highest point, Asr is the evening prayer before sunset, Maghrib is the evening prayer after sunset and Isha is the night prayer. All of these prayers are recited while facing the Kaaba in Mecca. Muslims must wash themselves before prayer, this washing is called wudu (“purification”). The prayer is accompanied by a series of set positions including; bowing with hands on knees, standing, prostrating and sitting in a special position (not on the heels, nor on the buttocks).
Zakāt or alms-giving is the practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth, and is obligatory for all who are able to do so. It is considered to be a personal responsibility for Muslims to ease economic hardship for others and eliminate inequality. zakāt consists of spending 2.5% of one’s wealth for the benefit of the poor or needy,like debtors or travelers. A Muslim may also donate more as an act of voluntary charity (sadaqah), rather than to achieve additional divine reward.
There are five principles that should be followed when giving the zakāt:
The giver must declare to God his intention to give the zakāt.
The zakāt must be paid on the day that it is due.
After the offering, the payer must not exaggerate on spending his money more than usual means.
Payment must be in kind. This means if one is wealthy then he or she needs to pay 2.5% of their income. If a person does not have much money, then they should compensate for it in different ways, such as good deeds and good behavior toward others.
The zakāt must be distributed in the community from which it was taken.