COMPARATIVE RELIGION

Comparative Religion

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY    

By Dr. Zakir Naik

Al-Qur’an 3:64
Al-Qur’an 20:25-28
Greet you in the same manner as Jesus (pbuh) greeted in Hebrew Luke 24:36
‘Sholam alay kum’ 
or Islamic greeting in Arabic Assalaamu alai kum
both meaning ‘Peace be on you’.

Introduction

Similarities / Similar Teachings in the Qur’an and the Bible which Muslims follow but Christians don’t

I) ISLAM

1. Definition A. Meaning of Islam 
(i) Islam is derived from the word salaam meaning peace. 
(ii) Submission to the Will of Allah (swt) i.e. God Almighty.
B. Meaning of ‘Muslim’ – One who submits his will to Allah. 
C.  Islam is not a new religion found by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

2.  Messengers in Islam

A. (i) To every nation was sent a Guide or a Messenger 
Al-Qur’an 35:24
Al-Qur’an 13:7
(ii) 25 Prophets mentioned by name in the Qur’an 
(iii) Islam is the only non-Christian faith that believes in Jesus (pbuh) 
(iv) Stories only of some prophets mentioned in Qur’an
Al-Qur’an 4:164
Al-Qur’an 40:78
(v) More than 1,24,000 Messengers according to Hadith
B. (i) Previous Messengers were only sent for their people and nation and their complete message was meant only for a particular time period. 
(ii) Moses (pbuh) was only sent for the Jews. 
(iii) Jesus (pbuh) sent only for the Jews i.e. lost sheep of Israel. 
Al-Qur’an 3:49
Mathew 10:5-6
Mathew 15:24
(iv) Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is the Last and Final Messenger for the  Whole of Mankind. 
Al-Qur’an 33:40
Al-Qur’an 21:107
Al-Qur’an 34:28
Sahih Bukhari Vol.1 Book of Salaah Chapter 56 Hadith No. 429
(v) Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) prophesised in the Bible. 
Al-Qur’an 7:157
Al-Qur’an 61:6
Deuteronomy 18:18
Isaiah 29:12
Song of Solomon 5:16
John 16:7
John 16:12-14

3.  Revelations of God

A. Several Revelations sent by Allah – Al-Qur’an 13:38. 
By name only four are mentioned in the Qur’an.
B. (i) The Qur’an is the Last and Final Revelation. 
(ii) All previous Revelations before Qur’an were only sent for a particular group of people and for a particular time period 
(iii) The Qur’an was Revealed for the Whole of Mankind 
Al-Qur’an 14:1
Al-Qur’an 14:52
Al-Qur’an 2:185
Al-Qur’an 39:41
II) PILLARS OF ISLAM:
1. Tauheed: Monotheism
A. La ilaha ilallahu, Muhammad-ur-Rasoolullah
Sahih Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith No. 7
B.  Believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels and the Book and the Messengers.
Al-Qur’an 2:177
C. Come to common terms — Worship of one God 
Al-Qur’an 3:64
D. Concept of God 
Al-Qur’an 112:1-4
Deuteronomy 6:4
Mark 12:29
E. Shirk – Biggest Sin 
Al-Qur’an 4:48
Al-Qur’an 4:116
Exodus 20:2-5
Deuteronomy 5:7-9
F. Jesus (pbuh) not God. He never claimed Divinity 
Al-Qur’an 5:72
John 14:28
John 10:29
Mathew 12:28
Luke 11:20
John 5:30
Acts 2:21
G. 99 Attributes of Almighty God 
Al-Qur’an 17:110
H.  Prefer using name ‘Allah’ rather than the word ‘God’ as the word ‘God’ can be played around with. Allah in the Bible – Eli, Eli, Lama Sabachthani 
Mark 15:34
Mathew 27:46
2. Salaah
A. Not merely Prayers but Programming 
Al-Qur’an 5:90
Al-Qur’an 2:188
B. Prayers restrain you from shameful and unjust deeds
Al-Qur’an 29:45
C. Salaah timings – for healthy soul five times a day 
Al-Qur’an 17:78
Al-Qur’an 20:130
D. Take off shoes before entering mosque. 
(i) Commandment of Allah to Moses 
Al-Qur’an 20:11-12
Exodus 3:5
Acts 7:33
(ii) Can Pray with Shoes. 
Sunan Abu Dawood – Vol. 1, Book of Salaah, Chapter 240,
Hadith No. 652-653.
(iii) Hygienic 
E. Ablution 
(i)  Al-Qur’an 5:6
Exodus 40:31-32
Acts 21:26
(ii) Hygienic 
(iii) Mental Preparation 
F. Stand shoulder to shoulder, while praying – 
Sahih Bukhari – Vol. 1, Book of Adhan Chapter 75 Hadith no. 692
Abu Dawood – Vol. 1, Book of Salaah Chapter 245 Hadith No. 666.
G. Sujud – Prostration 
(i) To humble your mind, humble your body 
(ii) Sujud mentioned 92 times in the Qur’an 
Al-Qur’an 3:43
Al-Qur’an 22:77
(iii) Prostration in the Bible
Genesis 17:3; Numbers 20:6
Joshua 5:14; Mathew 26:39

3. Zakaah

A. Meaning: Purification and Growth 
B. Description: 2.5% of saving every lunar year in charity
Al-Qur’an 9:60
C. If every human being gives Zakaah, not a single person will die of hunger. 
D.  “Wealth does not circulate only amongst the wealthy and the rich”
Al-Qur’an 59:7
E. I Peter 4:8

4. Saum – Fasting

A. Description – one lunar month i.e. during the month of Ramadaan every lunar year, Muslims fast, i.e. abstain from food and drinks from sunrise till sunset.  B. Benefits: learn self restraint. If you can control your hunger you can control almost all your desires. It enhances spiritual awareness. Al-Qur’an 2:183
C. Medical Benefits: 
(a) Increases absorption capacity of intestines 
(b) Lowers cholestrol.
D. Discourages smoking, alcoholism and other addictions. 
E. Bible prescribes Fasting
Mathew 17:21
Mark 9:29

5. Hajj

A. Description – Pilgrimage atleast once in life time if you can afford it 
B. Universal Brotherhood – 2.5 million people from all over the world gather, wear two pieces of unsewn cloth, preferably white. Cannot differentiate between rich and poor.
Al-Qur’an 49:13
C. Significance of Kaaba – Muslims don’t worship it 
Psalms 84:4-7
III ) ISLAM IS A COMPLETE WAY OF LIFE
These five pillars do not constitute complete Islam. Only if the pillars are strong, will the structure be strong.
1. Humans Created to Worship Allah
A.  Jinn and Man created for worship of Allah 
Al-Qur’an 51:56
B.  Meaning of Ibadaah – root word Abd meaning ‘slave’.
2.  Obeying Commandments of Allah is Submitting your will to Allah
A. Abstaining fron alcohol
Al-Qur’an 5:90
Proverbs 20:1 
Ephesians 5:18
B.  Abstaining from prohibited food
Al-Qur’an 5:5
Al-Qur’an 2:173, 5:3, 6:145, 16:115
(i) Dead meat
Leviticus 17:15
Deuteronomy 14:21
(ii) Blood 
Genesis 9:4, Leviticus 17:14, Deuteronomy 12:16, 
I Samuel 14:33, Acts 15:29
(iii) Pork is prohibited 
Leviticus 11:7-8
Deuteronomy 14:8
Isaiah 65:2-5
(vi) Food on which names beside Allah have been invoked 
Acts 15:29; Revelation 2:14
C. (i) Being Honest in your Business 
(ii) Helping Neighbours
Al-Qur’an 107:1-7 
(iii) Abstaining from Backbiting
Al-Qur’an 104:1-3
Al-Qur’an 49:11-12
(iv) Obeying and Respecting Parents
Al-Qur’an 17:23, 24
(v)  Celibacy or Monasticism is prohibited in Islam 
Sahih Bukhari: Vol. 7 Book of Nikah, Chapter No. 3, Hadith No. 4
(vi) Loving, being Kind and Just to your Wife 
Al-Qur’an 4:19
(vii) Abstaining from Adultery
Al-Qur’an 17:32
D.  Dressing Modestly 
(i) Al-Qur’an 24:30
Mathew 5:27-28
(ii) Al-Qur’an 24:31 
(iii) Six Criteria for Hijab in Islam
Deuteronomy 22:5
I Timothy 2:9 e.g. of Mary
I Corinthians 11:5-6
E. Circumcision
Acts 7:8
John 7:22
Luke 2:21
F.  In short, every Muslim should follow all the Commandments of Allah (swt) and His Messenger Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and abstain from the things they have prohibited. 

CONCLUSION

(a) If Christian is a person who follows the teachings of Christ (pbuh) and not one who worships Christ (pbuh). (We are more Christian than the Christians themselves). 
(b)  Muslim is a person who submits his will to Allah.
Jesus (pbuh) said, “not my will but thy will be done.” i.e. Muslim.
John 5:30 
(c)  Al-Qur’an 5:82

INTRODUCTION TO JUDAISM

   

by Dr. Zakir Naik

(I) INTRODUCTION TO JUDAISM:
Judaism is one of the important Semitic religions. Its followers are known as Jews and they believe in the prophetic mission of Prophet Moses (pbuh). (II) CONCEPT OF GOD IN JUDAISM:
(i) The following verse from the book of Deuteronomy contains an exhortation from Moses (pbuh):
“Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad”
It is a Hebrew quotation which means:
“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord”
[The Bible, Deuteronomy 6:4]
The following verses are from the Book of Isaiah:
(ii) “I, even I, am the Lord; and beside me there is no saviour.”
[The Bible, Isaiah 43:11]
(iii) “I am Lord, and there is none else There is no God besides me.”
[The Bible, Isaiah 45 : 5]
(iv) “I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me.” [The Bible, Isaiah 46:9]
(v) Judaism condemns idol worship in the following verses:
“Thou shalt have no other gods before me.”
“Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.”
“Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God.” [The Bible, Exodus 20:3-5]
(iv) A similar message is repeated in the book of Deuteronomy:
“Thou shalt have none other gods before me.”
“Thou shalt not make thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that in the earth beneath, or that is in the water beneath the earth.”
“Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God.” [The Bible, Deuteronomy 5:7-9]
In Judaism too, we find the same thread of monotheism, that is seen in other religions. (III) MUHAMMAD IN JEWISH SCRIPTURES (THE OLD TESTAMENT):

1) Muhammad (pbuh) prophesised in the book of Deuteronomy:

a) God Almighty speaks to Moses in Book of Deuteronomy chapter 18 verse 18:
“I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.”
b) Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is like Moses (pbuh):
i) Both had a father and a mother.
ii) Both were married and had children.
iii) Both were accepted as Prophets by their people in their lifetime.
iv) Both besides being Prophets were also kings i.e. they could inflict capital punishment.
v) Both brought new laws and new regulations for their people.
vi) Both died a natural death.
c) Muhammad (pbuh) is from among the brethren of Moses (pbuh). Arabs are brethren of Jews. Abraham (pbuh) had two sons:
Ishmail and Isaac. The Arabs are the descendants of Ishmail (pbuh) and the Jews are the descendants of Isaac (pbuh).
d) Words in the mouth:
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was unlettered and whatever revelations he received from God Almighty he repeated it verbatim. Deuteronomy (18:18):
“I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.”

2) Muhammad (pbuh) is prophesised in the book of Isaiah:

It is mentioned in the book of Isaiah chapter 29 verse 12:
“And the book is delivered to him that is not learned saying, ‘Read this, I pray thee’; and he saith, ‘I am not learned’.
“When Archangel Gabriel commanded Muhammad (pbuh) by saying ‘Iqra’, he replied “I am not learned”.

3) Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is mentioned by name in the Song of Solomon

chapter 5 verse 16:
“Hikko Mamittakim we kullo Muhammadim Zehdoodeh wa Zehrace Bayna Jerusalem.”
“His mouth is most sweet: ye, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughter of Jerusalem.”
All the prophecies mentioned in the Old Testament regarding Muhammad (pbuh) besides applying to the Jews also hold good for the Christians (H Q. 61:6)

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